I. Definition of phonology

II. The distinction between phonetics and phonology

  • definition
  • range

III. The basic unit of phonology: phoneme

  • definition: distinguish
  • Allophone 音位变体

-conditions: Phonetic similarity & Complementary distribution

  • Free variants 自由变体

IV. Segments in Contrast


  • Minimal Pairs 最小对立体: …differ one segment in the same position

V. Distinctive feature

  • proposed by Roman jakobson
  • definition
  • eg, /p/ & /b/

VI. Syllable(以发音为准而不是字母数量)

  • Ø English syllabic structure (ccc)v(cccc)
    Ø Chinese syllabic structure (c)v(c)
  • open syllable & close syllable
  • Maximal onset principle: eg. telling
  • Stress: degree of force; relative

word stress & sentence stress

VII. Phonological Processes

  • 3 aspects: undergo; produce; apply
  • Typical phonological processes: ØNasalization ØDentalization ØVelarization
  • Phonological rules ???
  • Assimilation

-Progressive assimilation: eg. /map/

-Regressive assimilation: eg. can; sink; since

  • Devoicing 清音化
  • The rule ordering: elsewhere condition

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