I. Definition of Pragmatics

  • the study of meaning in context, or it is the study of language in use.
  • Pragmatics=meaning-semantics

II. Speech act theory

  • The first major theory in the study of language in use.
  • J. L. Austin, Words and deeds, How to do things with words

Performative施为句 and constative叙事句

  • Verbs like bet, promise, warn and so on are performative verbs.
  • The typical performative sentences use first person singular subject, simple present tense, indicative mood, active voice and performative verbs.

Felicity conditions for performatives 适切条件

A. (i) There must be a relevant conventional procedure, and
(ii) the relevant participants and circumstances must be appropriate.

B.  The procedure must be executed correctly and completely.

C. very often, (i) the relevant people must have the requisite thoughts, feelings and intentions, and (ii) must follow it up with actions as specified.

Locutionary act, illocutionary act, perlocutionary act ???

  • Locutionary act: The utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference. 言内行为
  • Illocutionary act: The making of a statement, offer, promise, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it. 言外行为
  • Perlocutionary act: The bringing out of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence, such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. 言后行为(取效行为)

III. The theory of conversational implicature

  • H.P. Grice
  • The Cooperative Principle (Four maxims)- P177

1.The maxim of Quantity 数量准则
2.The maxim of Quality 质量
3.The maxim of Relation 关系
4.The maxim of Manner 方式

  • Violations of the maxims
  • Characteristics of implicature

ØCalculability 可计算性
ØCancellability/Defeasibility 可取消性
ØNon-detachability 不可分离性(与语义内容)
ØNon-conventionality 非规约性

IV. Post-Gricean developments P184

ØRelevance theory
ØThe Q- and R-principles
ØThe Q- I- and M-principles


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