I. The Definition of Syntax

  • words combined to form sentences

II. Syntactic relations

  • Positional relation (word order): sequential arrangement

C-selection (Categorial Selection)范畴/语类选择
S-selection (semantic selection)语义选择: The predicates may impose semantic restrictions

ØSyntagmatic relation observed by F. D. Saussure ØHorizontal relations ØChain relations

  • Relation of substitutability

ØAssociative relations by Saussure ØParadigmatic relation by Hjemslev
ØVertical relation Øchoice relation

  • Relation of co-occurrence 共现关系

III. Immediate Constituent analysis

  • definition
  • Tests for constituenthood
  1. The substitution test
  2. The movement test
  3. The coordination test
  • Tree diagram/bracketing p77


IV. Endocentric and exocentric constructions

  • Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents. (Usually NP, VP, and AdjP )

Construction: coordination; subordination

  • Exocentric construction

V. Syntactic function

Subject; predicate; object

VI. Category

  • Number: singular, plural, dual, trial
  • Gender: masculine, feminine, neuter
  • Case: nominative (主格), accusative(宾格), genitive(属格), dative(与格)
  • Concord(agreement)

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