I. Definition of morphology

  • internal structure and rules

II. Morpheme

  • definition: minimal meaningful unit
  • fundamental properties of human language—— discreteness.
  • Morph(语素形式)
  • Allomorph (语素变体)
  • The classification of morphs as allomorphs is based on
    (i) Similarity of meaning(ii) Complementary distribution

III. Classification of morphemes

  • Free morpheme
  • Bound morpheme:

-Derivational morphemes: derive new words
-Inflectional morphemes: syntactical relations

  1. Inflections related to English nouns
  2. Infections related to English verbs
  3. Inflections related to English adjectives: comparative or superlative
  • Processes related to inflection:

Internal change; Suppletion (不规则字形变化); Reduplication; Tone placement

“Both derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes.”  (?)

  • Root: base form
  • Stem: can add an inflectional affix
  • Affix: only add to other morphemes; bound

Division of affix:

-inflectional affix and derivational affix.

-prefix, infix and suffix; circumfix


  • Morphophonemics
  • Phonological conditioning
  • Dissimilation (异化)

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