I. Definition of word

  • Definition

Morpheme < word < word group<  phrase < clause < sentence

  • Lexeme
  • Identification of words: ØStability ØRelative uninterruptibility ØA minimum free form

II. Classification of words

  • Function Words/grammatical words: grammatical meaning-conj. prep. articles, pronouns, determiners

Content Words/Lexical words: n. v. adj. adv.

  • close class words: fixed and limited-Pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles; function wd are ~

open class words: Øverbs, adjectives, and many adverbs; content words are ~

III. Word formation

  • Compounding:adj+adj: bittersweet, icy-cold; adj+n: poorhouse, wildfire; adj+v:endocentric
  • Affixation/derivation
  • Invention (创新词语)
  • Shortening:
  1. blending(混成法) Smoke+fog=smog
  2. Abbreviation(缩写法)/clipping: Professor-Prof
  3. Acronym/Initialism(首字母缩略词)
  4. Back-formation(逆构法): deletion of a supposed affix. editor →edit



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